Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South Africa. Pepper seeds were carried to Spain in 1493 and spread to other European countries, Africa, and Asian counties. Today China is the world's largest producer of peppers.
Peppers come in all different sizes and shapes. They range in flavor from very sweet and mild to so hot they can actually burn the skin. Bell peppers are known as sweet peppers. The red bell pepper is actually a ripened green bell pepper. The Italian sweet frying pepper, also called a Cubanelle, is not a bell pepper or a chile pepper. It is normally a light green color but can be orange to red. As the name implies it is on the sweet side. Then there are the chile peppers. They contain capsaicin, a chemical that produces a strong burning sensation on the mucous membranes. Generally speaking, the smaller the pepper the hotter the taste, but this can vary depending on local growing conditions.
Supplies of bell peppers from California, Florida, and Mexico have overlapping growing seasons. This ensures a year round supply with various peak times. Chile peppers are also generally available year round.
The smell of peppers reminds me of my maternal grandmother's kitchen. She and my grandfather had a fruit and vegetable store for a time before I was born. She always had a variety of fruits and vegetables on hand. As a kid I remember having salami and fried peppers on a roll at the beach on Coney Island. Later in the supermarket in Florida there was a customer who would come in looking for damaged produce to buy at a discount. Many times we sold her cracked or wrinkled peppers. She would take them home, cook them, and bring them back with bread and cheese for us to make sandwiches. They were so delicious. Her name was Ida and she was an Italian from New Jersey, but we called her "the grandma lady". She just looked like a gandma.
All peppers are rich in vitamins A, C, and K , but red peppers are bursting with them. Red peppers are a good source of lycopene. Vitamins A asnd C are antioxidants and help prevent cell damage, cancer, diseases relating to aging, and support immune function. Lycopene is earning a reputation for helping to prevent prostate cancer and cancer of the bladder, cervix, and pancreas. Finally peppers are rich in phytochemicals with a decent amount of fiber.
Select peppers that have a glossy sheen and no shrivelling, cracks or soft spots. Store sweet peppers in a plastic bag in your refrigerator's crisper drawer. Green peppers stay firm for a week and other colors go soft in 3 or 4 days. Hot peppers do better refrigerated in a perforated paper bag.
Hot peppers' fire comes from capsaicin which acts on the pain sensors rather than the taste buds. Capsaicin has been shown to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides, boost immunity, and reduce the risk of stomach ulcers.
The hotness of peppers is measured according to the Scoville Heat Index. . The mildest peppers are at the bottom. Most of the heat in peppers is found in the seeds and rib membranes. To reduce some heat remove the seeds and membranes. Here is a short list of some peppers and their Scoville Units:
16 million - pure capsaicin
5 million - Law enforcement pepper spray
100,000 - 350,000 - Habanero pepper, Scotch bonnet pepper
30,000 - 50,000 - Cayene peppers
10,000 - 25,000 - Serrano pepper
2,500 - 8,000 - Jalapeno pepper, Paprika, Tabasco sauce
500 - 2,500 - Anaheim pepper, Poblano pepper
100 - 500 - Pimento, Banana pepper, Peperoncini
- 0 - - Bell peppers
Handle hot chile peppers with care. Wash your hands thoroughly after preparing them. Not only will the residue burn your lips and eyes, it will transfer to other fruits and vegetable.
So......... Eat up ! Enjoy ! I'll show you how.
Simple but Good:Fried Cubanelles:
Several cubanelle peppers
4 or 5 cloves of garlic, very thinly sliced
Extra virgin olive oil
salt and black pepper
Take the peppers and slice off the tops close to the stems. Cut down one side of the pepper and open it up. Remove the seeds and ribs.
Place about 1/8 inch of extra virgin olive oil in a pan and heat. Put in the garlic and sautee for a couple of minutes until the garlic begins to brown. Remove the garlic to a paper towel to drain. Put peppers in pan and stir to cook. When the peppers start to get soft add back the garlic and lower the heat to low medium. Give a generous sprinkle of garlic powder and add salt and black pepper. Cover and cook until peppers begin to brown. Remove to shallow dish and let sit at room temperature to cool and marinate.
Enjoy with crusty bread by dipping the bread in the oil and eating it with the peppers.