Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the coffee plant. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Re'union in the Indian ocean. The two most commonly grown varieties are Arabica and Robusta. Once ripened coffee beans are picked, processed and dried. Dried coffee beans are roasted to varying, depending on the desired flavor. roasted beans are ground and brewed with near boiling water to produce coffee as a beverage.
The plant was exported from Africa to countries around the world. Coffee plants are now cultivated in 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa. The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle 15th century. It was in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar way as we do today. Brazil is the leading producer of coffee in the world today producing 1/3 of the world's total.
In 2008 a Harvard - led study that examined data over 130,000 participants were followed up for 20 years. The results showed that regularly consuming up to 6 cups of coffee per day(with around 100 mg of caffeine per 8 oz, cup) was not linked with increased deaths in either men or women from any cause or death from cancer, or from death from cardio-vascular disease. Earlier studies didn't always take into account that known high risk behaviors, such as smoking and physical inactivity, tended to be more common among heavy coffee drinkers at the time.
Some other evidence has emerged in recent years that suggests coffee consumption may lower the risk of heart disease and stroke.
A Kaiser Permanente study that examined 130,000 plan members found that people reporting drinking between 1 and 3 cups of coffee a day had a lower risk than non drinkers regardless of other high risk factors of being hospitalized for heart rhythm disturbances. In a systematic review and meta analysis of 28 prospective observational studies representing over 1 million participants every additional cup of caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee consumed in a day was associated, respectively with 9 % and 6 % lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
A judge in California ruled that sellers must post a warning about cancer risk. Some scientists and available evidence suggests the risk is not very great.
The problem is not with coffee itself , but s chemical called acrylamide that is made when the beans are roasted. Government agencies have called acrylamide a probable or likely carcinogen based on animal research. The problem is that no one knows what levels are safe for people. The Environmental Protection Agency sets levels for acrylamide in drinking water, but not in food. Daltis Brawby, the American Cancer Society's chief medical officer states , "The issue is dose, and the amount of acrylamide that would be included in coffee which is really very small compared to the amount from smoking tobacco. I don't think we should be worried about a cup of coffee."
Coffee Brewing Methods:
Prepared by pushing hot water through a layer of compacted ground coffee contained in a port=filter. Espresso is a very concentrated coffee with a lot of body, aroma, and flavor. It contains a lot of coffee oils and solids. The most distinctive feature of espresso is the foamy layer on top and the low volume of the drink.
a method of infusing finely ground coffee in nearly boiling water. The Turkish Coffee grind size is extremely fine, almost a powder. It has the fullest body of all brewing methods.
Is the most popular preparation in North America. The method is to pour hot water over ground beans through a paper filter. The coffee is clear and clean.
Consists of a plunger/filter. The technique is to pour hot water over coffee grinds and let it steep for a few minutes. After steeping the plunger is used to separate the grinds to the bottom of the beaker. French Press coffee has a medium body, less than espresso, but more than drip.
A device for making coffee that uses steam pressure to push water through grinds similar to espresso, but with much lower pressure. The coffee is very bold and resembles espresso.
The preferred method of brewing for people with stomach problems. The brewing method consists of steeping coffee grinds for extended periods of time (12 to 36 hours) then straining and then serving cold or hot.
A manual coffee making device that allows you to use pressure to brew a cup. The method involves a few minutes of steeping followed by pushing the brew through the coffee grinds under pressure to extract more solids and caffeine, Aeropress coffee is strong with body and resembles espresso.